The first thing to do is check your preferred or required style guide for the proper voice to use and the correct formatting to employ in your abstract.
Please also note the two different types of abstracts: descriptive and informative. Descriptive abstracts should simply describe the research objectively and will not include the conclusion of the paper. To find out more about Abstract writing, visit
Since an abstract is meant to “sell” your work, you should first begin by explaining the topic of your work. Be specific. Use the active voice rather than the passive voice. (For example, say, “The study tested the effect of mercury on the central nervous system,” not, “The effect of mercury on the central nervous system was tested by the study.”)
Present the problem that your research is trying to solve. Make sure all your information is relevant and concise.
Outline how you went about solving the problem. You can do this by explaining your methodology and discussing what experiments were conducted and what research you performed to reach your conclusion.
Briefly present the conclusion you reached. What were the results? Did this prove or disprove your hypothesis? The abstract should be comprehensive, so make sure you answer all these questions.
Use as many of your keywords as possible, as databases catalog the most common words in your abstract to index material. Introduce your keywords naturally, and be thorough, detailed, and descriptive. Using the appropriate keywords will help others to find your information.